RetroPie - Building a Retro Game Console in a Day

A journey of building a retro game console using a Raspberry Pi with RetroPie in a single day.

February 20, 2021

I have wanted a retro gaming setup for about 10 years! I have dabbled with a little emulation of older consoles from my childhood - things like Sega Mastersystem, Playstation 1, and Amiga 500 emulation. In the past, I just set up an emulator on my Linux laptop (Thinkpad BTW) played around a little, tweaked some settings, then got bored. The problem was I wanted more games, more emulators for different platforms, and a proper controller instead of a keyboard/mouse. However, the biggest thing I wanted was to play something, not on my laptop. I sit at it all day for work, then after work for fun. I needed some better balance. I needed a console. Then I could be lazy and sit on the couch playing games!

The solution: one Raspberry Pi and the RetroPie project. This blog takes us on a journey of me buying all the components and setting up a retro gaming console in a single day. This is not a tutorial per-se, but I have included some useful lessons learned.

The Sega MasterSystem II

I want to emulate the Sega MasterSystem II (Image source: WikiMedia Commons)


10.27 am: Buying the Equipment

After a Saturday morning breakfast, I grabbed my wallet and headed to my favorite tech shop. It’s not my favorite, I just noticed they had the Pi 4 on sale that weekend. Anyway, while I was there I picked up the following items:

If the prices look high, they are in $NZD. And generally, tech is a little more expensive here. Adding everything together, a total of $282.

RetroPie Equipment

There are lots of tutorials about building a RetroPie, and everyone uses slightly different equipment. There are lots of recommendations to get a bundled pack - a good choice, but I am quite picky. Here is my rationale for each item:

  • Raspberry Pi 4 Model B - 8GB: The only Raspberry Pi I currently has a version 2. I wanted more grunt - mainly to be able to emulate PlayStation 1 games. So I went with a new Pi 4. I also got the 8GB version, the highest RAM option available. The cost difference is not much, and I wanted to squeeze any performance possible out of it.
  • Raspberry Pi 15.3W USB-C Power Supply: Why not get a cheaper power adapter from AliExpress. Yes, it would save money. But when it comes to power supplies I want quality. The bonus is that buying the official ones supports the Raspberry Pi Foundation, and they are awesome. So why not.
  • Micro HDMI to Standard HDMI Cable: Since the Pi4 has a micro HDMI output port, I needed a cable to go to my TV. Not much else to say about it.
  • DualShock 4 Wireless Controller: RetroPie supports so many controllers that picking one is hard. I looked at many options and picked the PS4 because it is still available from retail shops, has Bluetooth, and I like the style of the controller. Controller support in RetroPie is awesome, so the controller seems like a personal choice.
  • Sandisk Extreme Pro 64GB: It seems sensible to buy a MicroSD with decent speed. I didn’t have any spare MicroSD cards, so I just bought a new one, that had semi-decent capacity. I want to add an SSD in the future, so a massive MicroSD card seemed a waste of money.

11.03 am: Initial Installation

Got home with all my new goodies! Time to do some tinkering! I have not had much exposure to using the Raspberry Pi - so I was reading lots of tutorials and blogs along the way. However, the main documentation I followed was the RetroPie First Installation guide.

The first task is to download the RetroPie image and write it to my new flashy MicroSD card. I downloaded the latest RetroPie version: 4.7.1.

The installation instructions on the RetroPie guide are quite long and have various steps about installing software to write the RetroPie image to the SD card. Great to see such thorough documentation, but on Linux, this is a couple of commands task. I would not recommend following these instructions blindly. This is just a method I used on my Linux system, that I found simple and easy. So I documented them mainly for myself. Be careful with the dd command!!!

Download the RetroPie image:


Check the RetroPie MD5 checksum:

echo "1ea0cbf19991273cc8b50bbca7b52806  retropie-buster-4.7.1-rpi4_400.img.gz" | md5sum -c -

Copy image to MicroSD card:

sudo dd bs=4M if=retropie-buster-4.7.1-rpi4_400.img of=/dev/sda conv=fsync

Next, I remove the MicroSD card and inserted it into my RaspberryPi. Then connected the following cables:

  • Connected HDMI cable to my TV
  • Connected a USB keyboard I had laying around
  • Connected my PS4 controller via USB
  • Connected the UBS-C cable and powered on the device

12.41 am: RetroPie is Alive!

I was anticipating numerous technical issues when first using my new RetroPie system. I did encounter some issues, but they were all pretty minor. The RetroPie system is super easy to use and customize, and very flexible.

Basic Configuration - WiFi and SSH

In the RetroPie Docs First Installation guide, there is a section on How to connect to WiFi. They recommend using the RetroPie Configuration available in EmulationStation. I should have read this guide completely because I didn’t follow this excellent guidance! Instead, I exited EmulationStation to get to the terminal, and connected using the raspi-config command. Lesson learned - the RetroPie configuration option in EmulationStation has a bunch of useful tools to avoid directly using the terminal - including raspi-config.

If you want to transfer ROMS to your RetroPie, you have a couple of options. I am a diehard Linux terminal fan, so I wanted to copy ROMS from my laptop, via SSH, to the RetroPie. Either by using the scp command or by using FileZilla under SCP mode (more on that in a little bit). But you need to enable the SSH server on the RetroPie first. I did this by exiting EmulationStation and starting the SSH service from the terminal. Wrong! The easier method is to use the raspi-config tool, which is available from the terminal, but more easily available from the EmulationStation menu. The RetroPie Docs on Enabling SSH from the RetroPie menu outline how to do this. Lesson learned - the RetroPie configuration option in EmulationStation has the raspi-config tool.

RetroPie Configuration options available in EmulationStation platform

The RetroPie Configuration options available in EmulationStation platform.

With the RetroPie connected to my WiFi network, and SSH enabled - it makes sense to set a new password and get rid of the default. I couldn’t find an easy way to do this through the RetroPie configuration in EmulationStation (I could be wrong). Instead, I used the terminal and ran the passwd command.

sudo passwd pi

When you run the command, make sure to enter your new password twice!

First Game

I had a couple of SNES ROMS sitting around from when I last emulated games on my laptop, so I used one to test. I picked my all-time favorite - Street Fighter II Turbo for the Super Nintendo (or SNES). I copied the ZIP file to the ~/RetroPie/roms/snes folder and restarted EmulationStation. After restarting, I loaded up the game and was playing a classic retro game.

Street Fighter II Turbo

In summary, in approximately 3 hours I had bought all the parts, installed the base system, and was playing Street Fighter II Turbo on a SNES emulator.

Lessons Learned

Instead of including some of the issues I encountered throughout this blog, I decided to make some small subsections about issues I encountered, things I learned as a RetroPie noob, and some pro tips.

Where do I get ROMS for my new RetroPie?

It took me a while to find out where to get ROMS. The RetroPie Docs do not state much about this - due to copyright reasons. Completely understandable, but it makes it difficult as a new user. There is a great article Is Downloading Retro Video Game ROMs Ever Legal? that discusses ROM legality - a good read. I gave away my Master System 2 and PS1 consoles and games (context: I am a bit of a minimalist), so I don’t have the originals. I threw out my working Amiga 500 and games collection when cleaning up my parent’s house (a bad decision in hindsight). I love supporting people who make great stuff by buying their products - but it is really hard to do this easily in the ROM world. It would be amazing if there was a Steam-style ROM provider - but I am dreaming that this is ever going to happen. Anyway, a good place to find ROMs would be reading the pinned message on the /r/Roms subreddit. The pinned thread is named: Roms Megathread 3.0 Ybin Edition.

Where do I put my ROMS in the RetroPie and in what file format?

This is pretty simple, and probably common knowledge for lots of people. But I found it a little difficult at first. There is a folder in the pi user’s home directory called roms. In here, there is a bunch of subfolders for different emulators. So the snes folder is for Super Nintendo, and the psx folder is for PS1 games.

So we know where to put the ROMS… but what file format should be used? ROMS come in a variety of file formats. Each Emulators section in the RetroPie Docs has extensive information about each specific console/emulator. Let’s use SNES as an example. The SNES emulator accepts a bunch of file types including: .7z, .bin, .bs, .fig, .mgd, .sfc, .smc, .swc, and .zip. I like using archive file formats to save space - especially for emulators which require less processing power, so that decompression will not adversely affect gameplay. From some quick reading it seems some formats are better than others - something I will continue to research.

How do you transfer ROMS to your RetroPie via SSH?

The RetroPie Docs have a great page on Transferrin ROMs with various options. The section for SFTP (also known as SCP) is pretty bare. I seem to forget SCP commands so I thought I would document them here. With SSH enabled on the RetroPie, this is easy. You can copy ROM files using the scp command. The general structure of the command is:

scp username@ipaddress:/location/on/pi/to/copy/to

To provide an example. I have a SNES ROM called and want to copy it from my laptop to the ~/RetroPie/roms/snes/ folder on my RetroPie.

scp pi@

If the terminal is not your thing - or you don’t have the SCP command (Windows), an excellent alternative is a graphical tool FileZilla - developed by the same people who make Firefox. Here is a good tutorial on How to use SCP in FileZilla if you are interested. Lesson learned: SCP is an excellent, easy and fast method to transfer data to and from the RetroPie.

Where do I get different BIOS files for my new RetroPie?

Some emulators require a BIOS to play games. If the console/emulator you are using is in this list - you will need a BIOS. Additionally, some games will run better with a BIOS. This still leaves the question… Where do you get a BIOS from? At first, I tried Googling the BIOS name - which works well as they are usually unique. Using the PS1 as an example, one of the BIOS names is: scph101.bin. A good way to check the BIOS you have is legit is by calculating a hash of the file. RetroPie provides MD5 hashes on each console/emulator page. Have a look at the BIOS section of the PS1 and look for the MD5 column. This is how I validate the files in Linux:

echo "6E3735FF4C7DC899EE98981385F6F3D0  scph101.bin" | md5sum -c -

OK - I still haven’t answered the question: where do you a BIOS from? On my journeys I found a couple of GitHub repos that provide lots of these BIOS files:

Both projects provide hashes to validate the BIOS files - and seem pretty legit (haven’t done a complete repo review). They determine valid BIOS files by comparing against the Libretro database, specifically the System.dat file. Lesson learned: Didn’t learn this, but it is important… Get files from reputable sources and validate!

Why is my PS4 controller blinking white when connecting to the RetroPie via USB?

When I first connected my PS4 controller via USB to the RetroPie the controller light kept blinking white. I thought it was not charged at first - but it was. So it seemed like a connection issue. After a quick search, it seemed other users experienced the same issue, which was caused by a USB cable that could not provide enough power. I changed from a phone USB cable to a portable speaker USB cable. Problem solved! Lesson learned - try another USB cable.

How can I connect my PS4 controller to my RetroPie using Bluetooth?

There seem to be a bunch of options for connecting a PS4 controller to a RetroPie via Bluetooth. The RetroPie Docs on the PS4 controller outline 4 different methods. I choose to connect the controller using the built-in Bluetooth module on the Raspberry Pi 4 - as it seemed the easiest. I don’t want to admit it, but I struggled with this for a while. I used the raspi-config tool to try and pair the device, with no success. The docs state the following:

To put the controller into pairing mode, press and hold the Share button then the PS button.

Sounds easy?! Maybe I am an idiot because (to me) it reads: Press and hold the Share button, press the PS button and then release both. Nope! Press and hold both buttons, and keep holding! Lesson learned: Press and hold, and learn to read!!!


So far, I have only just scratched the surface with my new retro gaming console. Life is good! I haven’t had a console for about 15 years - so it is nice to have a lounge + TV gaming setup. But there is still lots to do, including:

  • Get a case! ASAP!
  • Get another controller for 2 player games
  • Tweak settings, improve performance, etc.

Hope you enjoyed this post and learned something from it. Hopefully, I will be back with some more RetroPie or Raspberry Pi-themed posts - as this has been an awesome experience so far. Until then, I will continue my mission to complete every Tony Hawk Pro Skater game…